Why the appearances of bread and wine?

By Father Bernard Ezaki, Assistant Pastor of Notre Dame Church of Bethlehem

What follows is a presentation I used to give to my students, and this is itself based on a lecture delivered by one of my seminary professors, viz. Monsignor Michael Chaback, who now resides at our villa for priests. Thank you, Monsignor Chaback!

Lovers generally want to bestow enduring gifts on those whom they love. What could be more long-lasting than a diamond, or the value of gold and silver jewelry? What better symbolizes true love’s endurance than the circular shape of a wedding ring? If then, lovers want to give long-lasting presents, why does Jesus give us Himself in the Eucharist under the appearances of such fragile things as bread and wine? Why bread and wine? Why not diamonds?

First, bread and wine are forms of food and drink, essentials of life. Without food, we hunger; without drink, we thirst. Without each, we perish. Christ gives us Himself in the Eucharist under the accidents (sense perceptions) of bread and wine to signify that we need God to exist at all. The Eucharist also reminds us that we should hunger and thirst after God with our whole being.

The Psalmist says, “As the deer longs for streams of water, so my soul longs for you, O God” (Psalm 42:2). In addition, the Eucharist is a reminder that Jesus is our ultimate satisfaction, the ultimate fulfillment of all our longings. Our Lord asserts, “I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me will never hunger, and whoever believes in me will never thirst” (John 6:35).

Second, bread and wine do not occur in nature. We cannot pick bread from a tree nor drink wine from a stream. Bread and wine are products of human society. The farmer, the miller, the baker – all have a role to play in the making of bread. The vinedresser, the vintner, the winery workers – all do their part in the production of wine.

Bread and wine are, to quote the words of the priest’s offertory prayer, the “work of human hands.” Thus the Blessed Sacrament should remind us that we human beings are social creatures. We need each other. Above all, the Eucharist is a tangible indication that we need to belong to the society of the Church.

Third, bread and wine are generally enjoyed as part of a meal. Meals obviously have a way of binding people together. Business deals are often struck over lunch. A man may propose to the woman he loves while the two are dining out. Relationships are cemented while people sit down to share a meal. That’s why regular family dinners are vitally important.

Even enemies are sometimes reconciled with one another in the breaking of bread. The Eucharist, then, is a sacred meal in which we Christians are bonded to one another and to God. This idea is expressed quite nicely in a prayer from the Didache, a writing of unknown authorship dating from the year 110 AD: “Father, … as grain, once scattered on the hillsides, was in this broken bread made one, so from all lands thy Church be gathered into thy kingdom by thy Son.”

To sum up, Jesus is truly present in the Eucharist under the appearances of bread and wine to remind us: (1) that we must hunger and thirst for God, our ultimate satisfaction, (2) that we need to belong to the society of the Church, and (3) that it is precisely through our reception of Holy Communion that we are bonded to one another and united to God.

More articles by Father Ezaki are on his website www.apologyanalogy.com.

The Real Presence and the Threefold Body of Christ

By Sara Hulse Kirby, M.T.S, Assistant Professor of Theology, DeSales University

In Catholic theology, the term “body of Christ” is used in varying contexts and to refer to distinct realities.

The first usage refers to the historical body of Jesus Christ who lived 2,000 years ago. This physical “body of Christ” was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified on Calvary, died, was buried, rose from the dead, and ascended into heaven. Indeed, Catholics believe that the glorified body of Christ exists in heaven, and that we, too, will be embodied in heaven with Christ.

The second usage refers to Christ really present in the Holy Eucharist. Catholics believe that the Holy Eucharist is the true sacramental presence of the entire Christ: body, blood, soul, and divinity. For this reason, before Communion, the Eucharistic minister holds up the host to the communicant and declares, “the body of Christ.” The communicant responds, “amen,” which affirms, “yes—it is so,” and then receives Jesus in the Holy Eucharist in to his or her body.

The third usage of “body of Christ” refers to the Church. St. Paul describes the Church in this way, declaring that the faithful make up the body of Christ, in all of Christ’s parts with Christ at the head. The Catechism says likewise, proclaiming, “The comparison of the Church with the body casts light on the intimate bond between Christ and his Church. Not only is she gathered around him; she is united in him, in his body.” (CCC #789) In addition to being Bride of Christ, the Church is also the “Body of Christ.”

The question arises, then, how all of these “bodies of Christ” relate to one another. Specifically, how does the physical body of Christ, seated at the right hand of the Father, relate to the sacramental body of Christ? Are Catholics taking away from or harming Christ’s glorified body when consuming the Holy Eucharist? Second, how does the sacramental body of Christ relate to the ecclesial body of Christ (the Church)?

To the first question: Does the Holy Eucharist take away from or harm the physical, glorified body of Christ in heaven? Thomas Aquinas says no. As Fr. Thomas Petri summarizes, in the Holy Eucharist, “the physical Christ is present,” insofar as the communicant receives Christ’s body, however, “not in a physical way.” Christ’s physical, historical body exists in heaven; yet the Holy Eucharist gives us the real Christ, body, blood, soul and divinity sacramentally.

An interesting example of the physical and sacramental body of Christ existing together is when Christ instituted the Holy Eucharist at the Last Supper. There, he was with his disciples in two ways: in his physical, historical body and in his sacramental, Eucharistic body. Both are his real presence. According to Pope Benedict XVI, one reason for the institution of the Holy Eucharist on the night before Christ’s passion was so that Christ would continue to be with us, even after his death, resurrection, and ascension. As Christ says, “Behold, I will be with you always, even unto the end of the age…” (Matthew 28:20) While we do not have access to his glorified body in a physical way on this side of heaven, we do have access to his body in a sacramental way through the Holy Eucharist, which is Christ’s real presence, under the appearance of bread and wine.

The second question also arises, namely, what is the relationship between the Eucharistic, sacramental body and the Church? Why are these both called “the body of Christ”?

When thinking of this relationship, the axiom, “You are what you eat” seems helpful. Catholic theology teaches that receiving the Holy Eucharist is not just a matter of individual piety or checking a box. Rather, when each of the faithful receives Jesus in Holy Communion (the Holy Eucharist), this Communion actually effects a communion between the faithful and Christ, and the faithful and one another, gathering all into the Church—which is also the “body of Christ.” Specifically, by consuming Christ, the faithful become the “body of Christ”—the very body St. Paul talked about, with Christ at the head—since, “you are what you eat.”

For this reason, St. Augustine said, “The Holy Eucharist makes the Church.” While it is true that the Church is the means by which we receive the Holy Eucharist (at Mass, with transubstantiation confected by a priest), the reverse is also true: By receiving Jesus in Holy Communion, the faithful are put in communion with God and each other. Indeed, our faith teaches that the Church is one, holy, Catholic and apostolic. This fact does not stand apart from the sacrament of the Holy Eucharist, but is effected by it (as well as through Baptism). In the Holy Eucharist, through receiving the same Christ, the diverse members of the Church are united and sanctified.

In conclusion, while the various usages of “body of Christ” can seem many and varied, they are, in fact, all intrinsically related. When we receive Jesus in Holy Communion, we are receiving the real Christ, body, blood, soul, and divinity, in a sacramental way. Through the reception of Christ in the Holy Eucharist, we become what we eat, that is, the Body of Christ, the Church. The Holy Eucharist is, then, not simply an individual affair, but truly meant to effect communion between the faithful, God and one another.


Ms. Sara Hulse is an assistant professor of theology at DeSales University, and a 2009 graduate of this institution. She holds a master’s degree in theological studies from the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family at The Catholic University of America, and is currently a doctoral candidate at Marquette University. Her doctoral dissertation is entitled, “Person and Society: The Trinitarian Anthropology of Henri de Lubac,” and her areas of specialization include the writings of John Paul II, the Trinity, and theological anthropology.

The first Apology in defense of the Christians by Saint Justin, Martyr

Second Reading of the Liturgy of the Hours “Office of Readings”:  The celebration of the Eucharist

“We do not consume the Eucharistic bread and wine
as if it were ordinary food and drink.”

No one may share the Eucharist with us unless he believes that what we teach is true, unless he is washed in the regenerating waters of baptism for the remission of his sins, and unless he lives in accordance with the principles given us by Christ.

We do not consume the Eucharistic bread and wine as if it were ordinary food and drink, for we have been taught that as Jesus Christ our Savior became a man of flesh and blood by the power of the Word of God, so also the food that our flesh and blood assimilates for its nourishment becomes the flesh and blood of the incarnate Jesus by the power of his own words contained in the prayer of thanksgiving.

The apostles, in their recollections, which are called gospels, handed down to us what Jesus commanded them to do. They tell us that he took bread, gave thanks and said: Do this in memory of me. This is my body. In the same way he took the cup, he gave thanks and said: This is my blood. The Lord gave this command to them alone. Ever since then we have constantly reminded one another of these things. The rich among us help the poor and we are always united. For all that we receive we praise the Creator of the universe through his Son Jesus Christ and through the Holy Spirit.

On Sunday we have a common assembly of all our members, whether they live in the city or the outlying districts. The recollections of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as there is time. When the reader has finished, the president of the assembly speaks to us; he urges everyone to imitate the examples of virtue we have heard in the readings. Then we all stand up together and pray.

On the conclusion of our prayer, bread and wine and water are brought forward. The president offers prayers and gives thanks to the best of his ability, and the people give assent by saying, “Amen.” The Holy Eucharist is distributed, everyone present communicates, and the deacons take it to those who are absent.

The wealthy, if they wish, may make a contribution, and they themselves decide the amount. The collection is placed in the custody of the president, who uses it to help the orphans and widows and all who for any reason are in distress, whether because they are sick, in prison, or away from home. In a word, he takes care of all who are in need.

We hold our common assembly on Sunday because it is the first day of the week, the day on which God put darkness and chaos to flight and created the world, and because on that same day our Savior Jesus Christ rose from the dead. For He was crucified on Friday and on Sunday he appeared to his apostles and disciples and taught them the things that we have passed on for your consideration.


The Year of the Real Presence Begins: Pastoral Letter from Bishop Schlert on Divine Mercy Sunday

The Last Supper of Christ

For I received from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took a loaf of bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, “This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.”  In the same way he took the cup also, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.” For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

(1 Corinthians 11:23-26)

Dearest Brothers and Sisters in Christ,

This passage from the First Letter of Saint Paul to the Corinthians is the oldest account of the Last Supper, and is the foundation of our belief in the Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist.

It is fitting that we recall these inspired words on this Divine Mercy Sunday as we begin the Year of the Real Presence, a Jubilee Year in the Diocese of Allentown, celebrating the 60th Anniversary of our founding in 1961 by Pope Saint John XXIII.  On this date in that year, Most Reverend Joseph Mark McShea, First Bishop of Allentown, took possession of the Cathedral of Saint Catharine of Siena, and our diocesan life began.

Ever since our founding, the Diocese of Allentown, her clergy, religious men and women, and the lay faithful, have been blessed by the Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist. Our faith in and reception of this “Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar” have been the nourishment for all of our apostolic works and endeavors of bringing the Light of Christ to each other and to our community.

The Holy Eucharist is the anchor of parish and diocesan life and serves as a constant source of nourishment. It has seen us through many challenges, both from within and outside our Church. Every age of the Church faces challenges, and now is our time to confront and heal them through the grace of the Holy Eucharist. The power of the Most Blessed Sacrament is our armor against the “snares of the devil” who “prowls about the world seeking the ruin of souls.”

Sadly, 69% of Catholics do not believe in the Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist; that is to say, they do not believe the Holy Eucharist is Our Lord’s Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity. This lack of such a core belief is manifested by a decline in Mass attendance. When the Diocese was founded in 1961, 67% of American Catholics attended Mass. Today, that number is 24%. While there have been many challenging disagreements and tragic revelations in the Church since 1961 that could be cited to explain this decline, we must also honestly say that there are other reasons for this lack of participation: an erosion in preaching, teaching, and belief that Christ is really present in the Holy Eucharist, as well as cultural influences and shifting societal priorities. For if one truly believes he or she really encounters Christ in Holy Communion, who would not run to meet our Eucharistic Lord?  Nothing should separate us from the most intimate encounter with Our Savior.  As a Diocese, this Year we will pray before the Most Blessed Sacrament for a return to the Real Presence of those who have been estranged, harmed, saddened, marginalized, and disaffected.

In this Jubilee Year for our Diocese, we also will work to invite our parishioners to come back to Mass, to be really present before the Real Presence.    As pandemic restrictions ease and a more routine life returns, so too will parish life need to recommence, beginning with the heart of parish life and the foundation of our Faith: worship of the Holy Eucharist at Sunday Mass.

While streaming Mass over the internet and Spiritual Communion were appropriate during the months of prudent isolation, except for the ill and homebound, virtual Mass is not an ongoing substitute for physical presence at Mass and the worthy reception of Holy Communion. It is my hope that, during this Year of the Real Presence, conditions will allow for a restoration of the Sunday Mass obligation.

Since we cannot separate the Holy Eucharist from its worthy reception, the Sacrament of Penance, which prepares our souls to receive the Lord, must also be an emphasis in this Jubilee Year dedicated to Christ’s Real Presence.  It is my fervent hope that pastors will be very generous in offering extra weekly times for the Sacrament of Penance, especially on weekdays, to make it more accessible for the faithful.

From Old Testament times, priests offered sacrifices to God on an altar.  Because every Mass is the unbloody sacrifice of Christ the High Priest on the Cross, priests are needed to offer this sacrifice in the person of Christ on the altars of our churches. There can be no Holy Eucharist without the Priesthood.  Therefore, this Year of the Real Presence will be a privileged time of praying for vocations to the Priesthood before our Eucharistic Lord in Adoration.   Parishes will be asked to set aside time at least weekly for Adoration of the Most Blessed Sacrament to beg the Lord of the Harvest to send priestly laborers into His vineyard of the five counties of the Diocese of Allentown.

In God’s Providence, our Jubilee also is taking place during the Year of Saint Joseph who, with Mary, lived each day in the Real Presence of Jesus.  Joseph was the first protector of the Real Presence, and we seek his intercession on our efforts as a Roman Catholic Family of Faith to center our diocesan life on the Holy Eucharist each day.

Turning to our Diocesan Patroness, Mary, Mother of the Church, in gratitude we thank God for sixty years of feeding His sheep, especially in the ever-abiding Real Presence of His Son.

Devotedly yours in Our Risen Eucharistic Lord,

Most Reverend Alfred A. Schlert
Bishop of the Diocese of Allentown

To Experience the Real Presence of Christ, You Need to be Really Present at Mass

By Father Adam Sedar

As we are all too aware, the pandemic we are currently facing has had many effects upon our lives. One of the most difficult and painful aspects of this crisis for good and faithful Catholics has been the inability to come to Holy Mass and to receive Holy Communion. This has been a difficult situation and thankfully parishes are once again permitted to have Mass with the faithful present. This situation has also given rise to some questions about the Mass itself and the how the faithful participate in the Mass.

The first question that has been raised: Are “private” Masses the same as “public” Masses?

I place the words private and public in quotation marks, because technically every celebration of the Holy Mass is, according to Pope Pius XII in his encyclical Mediator Dei, a public act of the Church’s worship. He teaches us that the Mass necessarily and of its very nature, has always and everywhere the character of a public and social act, inasmuch as he who offers it acts in the name of Christ and of the faithful, whose Head is the divine Redeemer, and he offers it to God for the holy Catholic Church, and for the living and the dead. This is undoubtedly so, whether the faithful are present – as we desire and commend them to be in great numbers and with devotion – or are not present, since it is in no wise required that the people ratify what the sacred minister has done. ( Mediator Dei 96)

So no celebration of the Holy Mass can be a “private matter,” as every Mass is offered for all the faithful living and deceased, that is, the members of the Church here on earth and all the souls in Purgatory. Every Mass is also offered in the presence of all the saints and angels, the Church in Heaven, who worship and adore the Lord’s true presence. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states,“To the offering of Christ are united not only the members still here on earth, but also those already in the glory of heaven. In communion with and commemorating the Blessed Virgin Mary and all the saints, the Church offers the Eucharistic Sacrifice”. (CCC 1370)

Every Mass, with or without a congregation, is perfect in and of itself because nothing could be more perfect or more pleasing to God the Father than the sacrifice of His Son. And this is exactly what each Mass is: the sacrifice of our Lord Jesus Christ on the Cross, where He offered His own Body and Blood to God the Father. In the Mass this sacrifice is represented, in an unbloody manner to the Father, whether or not any member of the faithful is present. Again Pope Pius XII makes this point very clearly: The unbloody immolation at the words of consecration, when Christ is made present upon the altar in the state of a victim, is performed by the priest and by him alone, as the representative of Christ and not as the representative of the faithful. But it is because the priest places the divine victim upon the altar that he offers it to God the Father as an oblation for the glory of the Blessed Trinity and for the good of the whole Church.(MD 92)

Even so, the Church desires that the faithful be present at Mass, as Pope Pius XII says, “in great numbers.” So much does the Church desire this that the priest may offer Mass with no member of the faithful present only when it is necessary. The Mass is for glory of God, and the sanctification of the faithful. There is great benefit when the faithful attend the Mass.

This leads to the next question: Are Masses offered without the faithful present beneficial for the whole Church?

The answer is yes! The priest, acting in the person of Christ, offers for the whole Church the sacrifice that is Christ Himself. This sacrifice brings the greatest honor and glory to God and reconciles mankind to the Father. In the Mass, the Lord Himself both makes intercession for us and offers thanksgiving for us to His Father. Every celebration of the Mass, as a perfect act of praise, reparation, thanksgiving, and intercession, is an effective means of bringing grace to all the faithful, both the living and the dead. In the Mass, the Church has been given the means and the ability to apply the fruit of her Lord’s sacrifice. The fruit of the Mass may be understood as the effect of the Mass as a sacrifice that is both impetratory and expiatory. Impetratory in that the Mass without fail gains the spiritual good we ask of the Father (if what we ask is really for our good) because Christ Himself pleads on our behalf, and expiatory in that it makes atonement for sin, because Christ Himself paid the price for sin.

The Church distinguishes three applications of the fruit of the Mass. The general fruit of the Mass is always applied to the Church, the living and the deceased. The special fruit of the Mass is applied to a specific intention. We are most familiar with this being the “Mass Intention” for which a member of the faithful may request the Mass be offered and for which a stipend is given and these intentions are often listed in the parish bulletin. The third is the personal fruit of the Mass, which is applied to the priest who celebrates in the Person of Christ and to the faithful, who are present, and who join with the priest.

What’s more, as Pope St. John Paul II reminded the Church so well, every Mass has a cosmic implication. In his encyclical “Ecclesia De Eucharistia” he taught: Because even when it is celebrated on the humble altar of a country church, the Eucharist is always in some way celebrated on the altar of the world. It unites heaven and earth. It embraces and permeates all creation. The Son of God became man in order to restore all creation, in one supreme act of praise, to the One who made it from nothing. He, the Eternal High Priest who by the blood of his Cross entered the eternal sanctuary, thus gives back to the Creator and Father all creation redeemed. He does so through the priestly ministry of the Church, to the glory of the Most Holy Trinity. Truly this is the mysterium fidei which is accomplished in the Eucharist: the world which came forth from the hands of God the Creator now returns to him redeemed by Christ. (EE 8)

Can one participate in Mass the same way when watching Mass on television or the internet as being there in person?

No, one cannot participate in the same way virtually or remotely. With personal presence at Mass, there is of course the obvious difference of being able to receive Holy Communion, the benefits of which cannot be overstated.

In teaching about the Church’s essential need for the Holy Eucharist, Pope St. John Paul II said: “The mystery of the Eucharist – sacrifice, presence, banquet – does not allow for reduction or exploitation; it must be experienced and lived in its integrity, both in its celebration and in the intimate conversation with Jesus which takes place after receiving communion or in a prayerful moment of Eucharistic adoration apart from Mass.”(EE 61) Notice that Pope St. John Paul II emphasizes the need to experience the Holy Eucharist “in its integrity” as “sacrifice, presence, banquet,” and this can only be realized as one is present at and participates in the Holy Mass. This is also why the Church only allows for the reception of Holy Communion outside of Mass in exceptional circumstances, usually for those unable to come to Mass due to illness or debilitation.

We must also understand that there are other benefits besides receiving Holy Communion to the faithful who attend Mass. As we have noted above, the third fruit of the Mass is a personal one that is applied both to the priest who celebrates and the faithful who are present and join with him. About this joining, Pope Pius XII says “…the faithful participate in the oblation, understood in this limited sense, after their own fashion and in a twofold manner, namely, because they not only offer the sacrifice by the hands of the priest, but also, to a certain extent, in union with him. It is by reason of this participation that the offering made by the people is also included in liturgical worship.”(MD 92)

Pope Pius goes on to say that the faithful’s participation is not essentially a matter of taking a specific role in the Sacred Liturgy, such as reader, cantor or server. Although these are praiseworthy, Pope Pius teaches that the primary manner of participation of the faithful is a joining of “…their hearts in praise, impetration, expiation and thanksgiving with prayers or intention of the priest, even of the High Priest Himself, so that in the one and same offering of the victim and according to a visible sacerdotal rite, they may be presented to God the Father.” (MD 93)

While it is true that members of the faithful can join themselves to the offering of every Mass being offered on altars the world over, this devotional offering is not the same as when one is actually present. In that beautiful prayer that so many of us learned when we were children, the Morning Offering, we ask that all our joys, sorrows and works be united to the sacrifice of Christ in the Masses being offered on altars the world over. This is a pious and noble practice. It is a great devotion that can bring much spiritual good.

Such devotion to the Holy Mass is to be encouraged. Being able to see the Mass on TV or the internet may enhance such devotion, especially if one does not simply watch, but truly prays. One can follow the prayers attentively and reflect on the Scriptures, be inspired by a homily and reflect on the mystery of the consecration. All of this can be a means to receiving an actual grace, that gift that is God’s help to us to cooperate with Him, especially in specific moments, to do good and avoid evil. It could, for those in the state of grace, even lead to an increase of sanctifying grace, as all good works can.

However, to join the priest sacramentally in the offering of the Mass the faithful must be present. While both the sacramental and the devotional are in fact spiritual, the nature of the sacraments requires presence.

Being there is substantially different than participating devotionally, either by a prayer of offering or a kind of “attendance by media”. Physical presence, as we see so well by the very act of the Incarnation — the fact of God truly becoming man and making His dwelling among us — is a different and also superior kind of participation than virtual or remote.

The institution of the sacraments as outward and physical signs that communicate saving grace flows from the fact of the Incarnation. The Lord came here to save us. He created the sacraments using the physical instrumentality of those ordained to share in His Priesthood. Salvation is not accomplished remotely or virtually. Our Lord really suffered in the flesh on the Cross. The sacraments “touch us” at every level of our existence, through our bodies and into our souls.

Every sacrament is like this. For example in Baptism, water is poured over our head and our soul is cleansed of sin. It is “in-person,” flesh and blood participation that the Lord intends. If His presence at the Mass is real, and it is, then the purpose of this Presence is to be with us and for us to be with Him. The Mass allows us to be at Calvary, to be at the Cross which stands at the center of human history, and for us to fully and actively share in Our Lord’s act of redemption, by being right there with Him, just as His Mother was, and offering ourselves to Him and with Him.

Were it not His will that we be there with Him, God could have made the Mass to be merely a re-enactment, one that might well move us on some level, perhaps a very deep level, but not actually make the salvific act of Christ present to us. Hearing about it is not enough. Seeing it re-enacted is not enough. We must be there, in the flesh!

Just so, seeing the Mass and hearing the Mass, through the use of our technology is not the same as being there, even if we can see and hear better through such means. By way of analogy, we can see this on various human levels: I can often see and hear a ball game better on TV than being there, but being there engages me on a deeper level. Being there when your team wins the big game brings a sense of being part of it that watching on TV can never do.

So it is with the Mass. We are meant to be there, even if we could see and hear better on TV or the Internet.

Most importantly, the faithful are called to join with the ordained priest in offering themselves with the sacrifice of Our Lord, both spiritually and sacramentally. It is at these moments, at Holy Mass, when we are united as ordained priests and baptized faithful, and together offer ourselves with the sacrifice of Our Lord and Savior, that we are truly God’s holy and priestly people.